Sun Facts For Kids – Facts About Sun For Kids

The Sun is the most important source of energy for all the living things on Earth. It is the only star of our solar system, that is keeping it together with its gravity. Sun is an important topic of science and must be studied in order to understand how vital it is for the life on Earth. We have gathered a complete set of Sun Facts For Kids, which will enable you to learn all the important Facts About Sun For Kids. You will learn its definition, about sunlight, its composition, its parts, what’s inside, its lifecycle, creation, age, temperature, solar mass, solar time, luminosity, color, eclipse, its death, energy, physical measurements and many other interesting facts about the Sun.

Sun Facts For Kids

What Is Our Sun

  • Our sun is a star located at the central point of the Solar System.
  • It is a ball-shaped body made up of hot plasma.
  • Continuous fusion reactions in its core heat it to such a high temperature that it causes the release of energy in the form of electromagnetic radiation (incandescence).
  • The major electromagnetic radiations it releases are visible light, ultraviolet light, and infrared light.
  • The Sun constitutes around 99.86% of the total mass of the Solar System.
  • It is the vital energy source for life on Earth.

sun facts for kids

What Is Sunlight

  • Sunlight is electromagnetic radiation released from the sun.
  • In the core of the sun, continuous fusion reactions occur. 
  • It causes the heating of the sun to incandescence and energy is released in the form of electromagnetic radiation.

Composition Of Sunlight

The major composition of the sunlight is:

  • Visible light
  • Ultraviolet light
  • Infrared light

What Is Our Sun Made Of – Sun Composition

  • Nearly, three quarter (¾) part of our sun is made up of hydrogen (〜73%).
  • Around one part (〜25%) is composed of helium.
  • While the remaining (〜2%) is composed of heavier elements including carbon, oxygen, neon, and iron.

Parts Of The Sun

Astronomers divide the sun into three major regions:

The interior of the sun

The interior of the sun is further divided into three major layers:

  • Core, which is the innermost, central part of the sun. The core accounts for about 20-25% of the sun’s radius. It is the hottest part of the sun, where the temperature and pressure are sufficient for the nuclear fusion reactions to occur.
  • The Radiative Zone is a region that exists between about 20-25% and 70% of the sun’s radius. Here, energy transfer occurs through photons as thermal radiations.
  • The Convective Zone exists between about 70% of the sun’s radius and a point near the sun’s visible surface. In this layer, heat moves upward through rolling convection, and energy transfer occurs via convection. It is just like the bubbling motion in a pot of boiling corn soup.

Parts Of The Sun Facts

Photosphere 

  • The photosphere is the visible surface of the sun. It is a boundary between the interior of the sun and the solar atmosphere.

The solar atmosphere 

  • The solar atmosphere is a gaseous halo around the sun. 
  • It lies outside the visible surface of the sun.
  • It is composed of:
    • Chromosphere 
    • Solar transition region
    • Corona 
    • Heliosphere 

All these regions can be seen only during the solar eclipse when the major part of the sun is hidden.

What Is Inside The Sun

  • The sun is a giant ball that holds hydrogen and helium together inside it through its gravity.
  • There are several regions in the sun.
  • The interior region is composed of the core, the radiative zone, and the convection zone.
  • Next to the interior region is the visible surface known as the photosphere.
  • After the photosphere is the chromosphere next to which is then the transition zone.
  • After the transition zone is the extensive outer atmosphere of the sun that is known as the corona.
  • The material that goes away from the corona at a supersonic speed and forms a giant magnetic bubble around the sun (solar wind) is known as the heliosphere.
  • The range of the heliosphere in the Solar System is beyond the orbit of the planets.
  • Our planet Earth exists within the atmosphere of the sun.

Life Cycle Of Our Sun

There are four stages of the life cycle of our sun:

Nebula 

  • Nebula was the initial stage of the life cycle of the sun.
  • It was a large cloud of dust and gases from which the entire Solar System formed.
  • The collapse of the nebula under its own gravity transferred gravitational potential energy to kinetic energy in its particles.
  • The collapse also caused the nebula to become denser and also made its rotation faster.
  • The collision of particles in the denser nebula caused the transfer of kinetic energy to internal energy and thermal energy.
  • The core of the nebula started to form a dense and hot Protostar.
  • When the core of the sun became denser and hotter, the nuclear fusion reactions started in it and gave out radiation.

Nebula - Life Cycle Of Our Sun

Main Sequence Star

  • The current stage of the sun is the “Main Sequence Star”.
  • In this stage, hydrogen fuses into helium in its core through the nuclear fusion reaction.
  • Scientists estimated that the sun will remain in this stage for another 4 to 5 billion years.

Red Giant

  • Red Giant is another stage of the life cycle of the sun, in which it will expand and cool to a red giant.

White Dwarf 

  • White Dwarf is the stage after the red giant, in which it will again shrink and become a white dwarf.
  • Scientists say that nuclear fuel in the white dwarf stage of the sun will be used up and it will slowly cool down over many billion years.

Life Cycle Of Our Sun Facts for kids

When Was Sun Created

  • The sun was created around 4.6 billion years ago.

How Was Sun Created – Where Did The Sun Come From

  • It is believed that the sun was created as a result of giant, rotating clouds of gas and dust known as the solar nebula.
  • The collapse of the nebula under its own gravity caused its rotation faster and it became dense into a flattened disk.
  • Most material of the nebula condensed down towards the center and formed our sun, which makes up 99.8% of the total mass of our Solar System.
  • Most of the remaining material of the nebula formed planets and other astronomical objects that revolve around the sun.

What Is The Age Of the Sun

  • The age of the sun is about 4.603 billion years.

What Is The Temperature Of The Sun

  • The temperature of the sun is 5,778 kelvin (5,505 ℃).

What Is The Temperature Of The Core Of The Sun – Sun Core Temperature

  • The temperature of the core of the sun is nearly 15.7 million kelvin (15 million ℃) (27 million ℉).

What Is A Solar Mass

  • A solar mass means the mass of the sun.
  • In astronomy, the solar mass is often used as a convenient and standard unit to describe the mass of stars, galaxies, and other astronomical objects.
  • It is equal to approximately 2 × 10³⁰ kg.
  • It is denoted by the symbol “M☉”.

all about Solar Mass sun facts

What Is Solar Time

  • The measurement of time-based on the sun’s position in the sky is known as solar time.
  • The day is the fundamental unit of solar time.

What Is The Luminosity Of The Sun

  • In astronomy, luminosity means the intrinsic brightness of an astronomical or celestial object.
  • In other words, luminosity is the measure of brightness, which is the amount of light or energy emitted from the surface of a star.
  • Solar luminosity or the luminosity of the sun is denoted by the symbol L☉, and its value is 3.827 × 10^26 watts.
  • Astronomers used it as a conventional standard to measure the luminosity of stars, galaxies, and other astronomical objects in terms of the sun’s output.

What Does The Sun Look Like

  • In the daytime, the sun looks like a large bright sphere of white color.
  • At dawn and dusk, it looks like a large orange sphere.

What Color Is The Sun – What Is The Real Color Of The Sun

  • The real color of the sun is white.
  • When sun rays are passed directly through a prism, the rainbow colors come out at the other end. The sun is therefore white because white has all the colors mixed together.
  • At dusk and dawn, when the sun is low in the sky, the color of the sun appears red, orange, or yellow. However, it is due to the scattering of the colors with short-wavelengths (blue, green, violet) by the atmosphere of the Earth. While the colors with long-wavelengths (red, yellow, orange) pass through the thick atmosphere.

What Color Is The Sun In Space

  • The color of the sun in space is white.

What Type Of Star Is The Sun

  • The sun is a G star or G-type main-sequence star that is also known as a yellow dwarf.

What Is The Farthest Planet From The Sun

  • Currently, Pluto is the farthest planet from the sun.
  • However, Pluto’s status has changed to a dwarf planet (which means a small planetary object that revolves around the sun), so Neptune is the farthest planet from the sun.

What Is The Nearest Planet To The Sun

  • Mercury is the nearest planet to the sun.

What Is The Ecliptic

  • In astronomy, ecliptic means a great circle on the celestial sphere that represents the apparent path of the sun during the year.
  • From an observer’s point of view on the Earth, the ecliptic is an imaginary line on the sky that is marked by the movement of the sun around the celestial sphere during a year.

What Is Solar Eclipse

  • A solar eclipse occurs when the moon comes between the sun and Earth and partially or completely blocks the sunlight coming to Earth.
  • It happens when the Earth, Moon, and sun become aligned. 
  • There are four types of a solar eclipse; total, partial, annular, hybrid.
  • In a total eclipse, the moon fully hides the sun disk. While in partial and annular eclipses, only a part of the sun is hidden.
  • The hybrid eclipse occurs when an annular eclipse shifts to a total eclipse, or a total shift to an annular eclipse.

Solar Eclipse facts for kids

What Will Happen When The Sun Dies

  • Scientists expect that the sun will expand and become a red giant in the next five billion years.
  • It is expected that after the red giant phase, our sun will slowly run out of fuel (hydrogen). Once the fuel in the sun is used up, it will die and shrink into a cold body known as a white dwarf.

What Year Will The Sun Explode

  • Scientists did a lot of research to estimate when our sun will explode.
  • They estimated that there are no chances of the explosion of our sun in the next five to seven billion years.

What Does The Sun Give Us

  • The sun gives us a lot of benefits. We can not exist on this planet Earth without the sun.
  • Sun stirs the Earth’s atmosphere and heats the seas.
  • Along with the air movement, heat from the sun causes the generation of the weather patterns on the Earth.
  • The Sun is the basic source of energy for the growing green plants, which then provide oxygen and food for life on the Earth.
  • Without the sun, our planet Earth would be a cold ball of rocks covered with ice where no life would exist.

How The Sun Produces Energy

  • The sun produces energy through a process known as nuclear fusion.
  • In a nuclear fusion reaction, the nuclei of two atoms separate from their electrons and fuse together. This occurs in the presence of high temperature and pressure. Energy is released when two nuclei are fused together.
  • Around 73% mass of the sun is composed of hydrogen, while around 25% of its mass is composed of helium.
  • A high temperature and pressure on the sun’s core cause the nuclei of hydrogen atoms to separate from their electrons and fuse together and form helium atoms. 
  • The fusion of four hydrogen nuclei forms one helium atom. However, the mass of the helium atom is less than the four nuclei that fused together. So some matter in this process is converted into energy and emitted into space in the form of radiant energy.
  • The radiant energy produced makes its way to the surface of the sun in about 150,000 years. Once it reaches the sun’s surface, it takes only about 8 minutes to cover 93 million miles to reach Earth.

What Does The Sun Produce

  • The sun produces energy that is known as radiant energy.

What Type Of Energy Is The Sun

  • The energy of the sun is Solar Energy, which means any type of energy produced or generated by the sun.

What Energy Does The Sun Give Off

  • The energy that the sun gives off reaches the Earth in the form of solar radiation. 
  • Solar radiations are electromagnetic radiations that include mainly ultraviolet light, visible light, and infrared light. 
  • So the energy that the sun gives off is radiant energy.
  • Only a small amount of energy produced by the sun reaches Earth, that is one part in two billion.

What Is Energy From The Sun Called

  • Energy from the sun is called solar energy.

What Keeps The Sun Burning

  • Nuclear fusion reactions keep the sun burning.
  • A huge amount of heat is produced due to nuclear fusion that glows the sun and causes it to emit light.

What Orbits The Sun – What Revolves Around The Sun

  • All planets in the Solar System orbits or revolve around the sun.
  • These include Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, and Pluto.
  • All planets take different duration to complete one orbit around the sun, which depends on their distance from the sun.
  • Mercury completes one orbit in 88 days, Venus in 225 days, Earth in 365 days, Mars in 687 days. Jupiter completes one orbit in 12 Earth years, Saturn in 29 Earth years, Neptune in 165 Earth years, and Pluto in 248 Earth years.

What Is The Size Of The Sun – Sun Size

  • Our sun has an immense size with around 696,340 km radius and 1.3927 million km diameter.
  • The Sun is around 330,000 times heavier than Earth.
  • While 1.3 million Earths would fit in the volume of the sun.

What Is The Radius Of The Sun – Sun Radius

  • The radius of the sun is 696,340 km (432,450 miles).

What Is The Diameter Of The Sun – Sun Diameter

  • The diameter of the sun is 1.3927 million km (864,000 miles). 

Size Of Planets Compared To Sun – Size Of Planets And Sun

In the following table, the size of the sun is compared with planets of the Solar System:

S.No Planet Name  Planet Diameter  Comparison With Sun (1.3927 million km diameter)
1 Mercury  4878 km  Sun is 277 times wider 
2 Venus  12,103 km Sun is 115 times larger 
3 Earth  12,742 km Sun is 109 times larger 
4 Mars  6,779 km Sun 207 times wider 
5 Jupiter  139,820 km Sun is 10 times larger 
6 Saturn  116,460 km Sun is 12 times larger 
7 Uranus  50,724 km  Sun is 27.4 times larger 
8 Neptune  49,244 km Sun is 27.7 times larger 
9 Pluto  2,376.6 km Sun is 585 times greater 

Solar system facts for Kids

What Is The Mass Of The Sun

  • The mass of the sun is 1.989 × 10^30 kg.
  • About 99.86% of the total mass of the Solar System is composed of the sun. 

What Is At The Center Of Our Solar System

  • The Sun is at the center of our Solar System.

What Is The Visible Surface Of The Sun Called – What Is The Surface Of The Sun Called

  • The visible surface of the sun is called Photosphere.
  • The photosphere is directly observable with visible light.
  • It is a boundary between the inner portion of the sun and the solar atmosphere.

What Would Life On Earth Be Like Without The Sun

  • The Sun is the ultimate and vital source of energy for life on Earth.
  • Without the sun, the Earth would be like a cold ball of rocks covered with ice.
  • It would be impossible for any kind of life to exist and survive on Earth without the sun.

What Is Solar Noon

  • Solar noon means the time of the day when the sun reaches its highest point in the sky.
  • It is mainly midday time or noon in the daytime.

Is The Sun Moving – Does The Sun Move

  • Yes, the sun is moving (rotating) around the center of the Milky Way Galaxy.

How Does The Sun Move

  • The sun spins on its axis as it orbits the Galaxy.
  • Its rotation on its axis has a tilt of 7.25 degrees about the plane of the orbits of the planets.
  • As the sun is not a solid object, its different parts spin at different speeds.
  • At the equator region, the sun completes one rotation on its axis in about 25 Earth days. While at the poles, the sun completes one rotation on its axis in about 36 Earth days.

G-type main-sequence star

Is Our Solar System Moving

  • Yes, our Solar System is moving (rotating) around the center of the Milky Way Galaxy.
  • The Sun and the Solar System move at an average speed of 720,000 km/hr. However, even at this speed, it completes one orbit around the Milky Way Galaxy in about 230 million years.

Is The Sun Moving Through Space

  • Yes, the sun is moving through space.
  • Along with the entire Solar System, the sun is rotating around the center of the Milky Way Galaxy.

What Does The Sun Rotate Around

  • The sun is rotating around the center of the Milky Way Galaxy.

How Far Is The Sun From The Center Of The Milky Way – How Far Is The Sun From The Center Of The Galaxy

  • The sun is located in a spiral arm of the Milky Way, known as the Orion Spur.
  • The Sun is about 8 kiloparsec (kpc) far from the center of the Milky Way.
  • Parsec is a unit used in astronomy to measure long distances to astronomical objects.
  • One parsec is equal to about 30.9 trillion kilometers (19.2 trillion miles), or 206,000 astronomical units, or 3.26 light-years.

Distance Of Planets From Sun

The distance of planets from the sun is shown in the following table:

S.No Planet Name  Distance From The Sun
1 Mercury  58 million km (36 million miles), 0.4 AU (astronomical unit, which is the distance of Earth from the sun)
2 Venus  108 million km (67 million miles), 0.7 AU
3 Earth  149.6 million km (39 million miles), 1 AU
4 Mars  228 million km (142 million miles), 1.5 AU
5 Jupiter  778.5 million km (484 million miles), 5.2 AU
6 Saturn  1.4 billion km (886 million miles), 9.5 AU
7 Uranus  2.9 billion km (1.8 billion miles), 19.8 AU
8 Neptune  4.5 billion km (2.8 billion miles), 30 AU
9 Pluto  5.9 billion km (3.7 billion miles), 39 AU

Distance Between Earth And Sun

  • The average distance between Earth and the sun is 149.6 million kilometers (39 million miles). 
  • The distance of the Earth from the sun is known as the astronomical unit (AU).

How Long Does It Take For Light From The Sun To Reach Earth

  • Sunlight reaches the Earth is only about 8 minutes.
  • When we see the sun, we see it as it was 8 minutes ago.

Murad Ali Khan is a researcher, writer & editor, who believes in generating quality content. He leads an awesome team of high school students, teachers & IT graduates who helps him in creating & maintaining educational Websites & Apps.
When not tinkering on the web, Murad enjoys going on hikes, read Latest Science News, plays tennis & hangs out with his friends.

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