Here are the top 10 Mercury Facts For Kids which will provide you with a brief overview about the first planet of our solar system.

  1. Mercury is a terrestrial planet that is closest to the Sun.
  2. It has the fastest orbital speed i.e. 47.36 km/s and takes 88 days to orbit the sun.
  3. Mercury is not the hottest planet even though it is closest to the sun.
  4. The distance between sun and mercury is is 58 million kilometers.
  5. Mercury is the most iron-rich planet in the Solar System consisting 70% of its weight.
  6. Mercury completes its one rotation around its own axis every 59 days of Earth.
  7. Mercury is the second-densest planet in the Solar System.
  8. During the day time temperatures can reach 800oF (430 oC).
  9. At night, the temperature can fall to -180℃.
  10. Due to low surface gravity mercury has no atmosphere.

Mercury Facts For Kids

What Is Mercury Planet

  • Mercury is one of the four terrestrial planets located closest to the Sun, i.e. Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars.
  • Out of these four, Mercury is the closest to the Sun.
  • This is why it is also known as the innermost planet.
  • Moreover, it is also the smallest planet of the solar system. 
Mercury Facts For Kids

What Is Mercury Named After – Mercury Planet Name Origin

  • Because of the size of Mercury and its small distance from the Sun, it orbits around the Sun very quickly.
  • It was a Roman tradition to name all the planets after their Gods.
  • God Mercury was a Messenger God and it was also the God of travelers.
  • Therefore, because of the resemblance in the nature of God Mercury and the planet, it was named Mercury.  

What Type Of Planet Is Mercury

  • Planet Mercury is a terrestrial planet just like Venus, Earth, and Mars.
  • It is composed mainly of rocks and metals and it has the basic structural elements of Core, Mantle, and Crust.
  • Mercury is the first planet from the Sun.
  • Terrestrial planets also resemble closely to Earth in many of their features.
  • The density of this planet is 5.43 g/cm3.
  • The surface of Mercury is fully covered with craters.

What Is Mercury Known For

  • Mercury is well-known for its fastest orbital speed.
  • It is 47.36 km/s which is the fastest amongst all other planets in the Solar System.
  • Because of this speed, Mercury is able to orbit around the Sun most quickly.
  • It takes Mercury around 88 days to orbit around the Sun. 
  • This time period is the smallest among all other planets in the Solar System.

Is Mercury The Hottest Planet

  • Although Mercury is located closest to the Sun, it still is not the hottest planet in our Solar System.
  • Venus is the hottest planet in our Solar System.
  • The reason behind this anomaly is a large amount of carbon dioxide present in the atmosphere of Venus.
  • This leads to the greenhouse effect and hence, an unbearably high temperature at Venus.
  • Moreover, due to the closeness of Mercury to the Sun, the escape velocity of its molecules is also very high.
  • Because of this fact, an excessive amount of heat does enter this planet but it also escapes readily along with gaseous molecules. 
  • On the other hand, the gaseous molecules and the heat present in the atmosphere of Venus cannot leave this planet. 
  • That is why it is the hottest planet in our Solar System.

Is Mercury Habitable

  • Because of the abrupt temperature fluctuations on this planet, Mercury is generally not considered to be habitable.
  • Its temperature range lies between -180℃ to 427℃.
  • Both these extreme temperatures are not suitable for us to survive. 
  • Moreover, Mercury is also closest to the Sun and human beings are not habitual of bearing that much heat.
  • This is also a reason for the lack of habitability on the planet Mercury. 
  • This planet has no atmosphere and water on it which makes the survival of human beings impossible. 

Mercury Planet Characteristics – Features Of Mercury Planet

  • Following are the main characteristics of Mercury planet:
    • Mercury is the smallest planet in the solar system.
    • The density of this planet is 5.43 g/cm3
    • One revolution of Mercury around the Sun takes around 88 days.
    • It has a surface gravity of 3.7m/s^2  or 0.38g.

Special Features Of Mercury Planet – Mercury Special Characteristics

  • The following are some unique features of Mercury:
    • Mercury is the smallest planet in the Solar System
    • It does not have any moons or rings
    • It is the planet closest to the Sun
    • 1 day on Mercury = 58.67days on Earth
    • 1 year on Mercury = 88 Earth days
    • Your weight on Mercury would only be 38% of your weight on Earth, for example: If you weigh 100 pounds on Earth, you would only weigh 38 pounds on Mercury.
    • Despite being closest to the Sun, Mercury is still not the hottest planet in the Solar System.

Mercury Planet Physical Properties

  • The following are some of the main Physical Properties of Mercury:
PropertyValue
CompositionSolid, and gaseous matter
Diameter4,880 km (3032.291 miles)
Average density5.427 g/cm3
Mass3.3011x 1023 kg (7.27764 × 1023 lbs)
Surface area7.48 x 10km2 (28 880 441.5 sq mi)
Volume6.083 x 1010 km3 (1.45938931 × 1010 cu mi)
Rotation period58.646 d (58 days 15 hours 30 minutes)
Mean surface temperature340 K (66.85oC)
Mean surface pressure≲ 0.5 nPa

Is There Water On Mercury

  • There is no liquid water present on the surface of Mercury.
  • This is because of the high temperature of this planet owing to its closeness to the Sun.
  • However, it is found from some evidence that water ice does exist on the surface of Mercury.

Is There Ice On Mercury

  • Yes, there exists multiple areas on the surface of Mercury on which water ice is found.
  • These areas or regions mainly exist on the North pole of Mercury.

What Does The Planet Mercury Look Like – Mercury Planet Appearance

  • Mercury looks a bit like our planet Earth’s moon.
  • It’s surface is covered with craters created by the space rock impacts.

What Does Mercury Look Like From Earth – Mercury From Earth

  • Mercury looks a bit like the Earth’s moon.
  • It’s surface is covered with craters which were caused by impacts of space rocks.
  • It looks slightly reddish and does not shine like a star.

What Color Is The Planet Mercury – Mercury Planet Color

  • The color of the planet Mercury is dark grey.

Where Is Mercury Located – Mercury Location

  • Mercury is the planet which is closest to the Sun.
  • Its Right Ascension (RA) is 16 hours, 53 minutes, and 41 seconds.
  • Its Declination is +21°  1’ 16”
  • Its distance from the sun is 58 million kilometers (360 million miles).

Where Is Mercury Located In The Solar System

  • In the Solar System, Mercury is located at the first position from the Sun.

Where Is Mercury In The Sky

  • Mercury is usually visible in the sky before sunrise.
  • It looks slightly reddish..

When Is Mercury Visible In The Night Sky

  • Mercury usually appears as a bright star with a yellow or ochre hue.
  • Depending upon the time of year, it is best sighted in the evening just after the sunset, or in the morning just before the sunrise.
Solar System - Where is Mercury
From Right to Left: MercuryVenus, Earth, MarsJupiterSaturnUranus, and Neptune

What Is The Size Of Mercury – Mercury Planet Size

  • The radius of the planet Mercury is around 2439.7 km.
  • It is the smallest planet in our solar system.

What Is The Diameter Of Mercury – Mercury Diameter In Km

  • The diameter of the planet Mercury is 4879.4 km.

What Is The Size Of Mercury Compared To Earth – Mercury Size Compared To Earth

  • The radius of Mercury is 1,516 miles (2,440 kilometers), while the radius of Earth is 3,958 miles (6,371 kilometers).
  • Mercury is 1/3 times wider than the Earth.
  • The surface area of Mercury is 7.48 x 10^7 km2, while the surface area of Earth is 5.1x 10^8 km2.
  • If we simply compare Earth as the size of nickel to Mercury, then Mercury would be about as big as a blueberry.
What Is The Size Of Mercury Compared To Earth

What Is The Mass Of Mercury – Mass Of Mercury In Kg

  • The mass of the planet Mercury is 3.285 x 10^23 kg.

What Is The Mass Of Mercury Compared To Earth – Mercury Mass Compared To Earth

  • The mass of Mercury is only 5.5% the mass of Earth.

What Is The Gravity On Mercury – Mercury Gravity

  • The gravity on Mercury is 3.7 m/s2.

What Is The Surface Gravity Of Mercury – Mercury Surface Gravity

  • The surface gravity of Mercury is also 3.7 m/s2

What Is The Gravitational Pull on Mercury – Mercury Gravitational Pull

  • The gravity on Mercury is 0.38g (3.7 m/s2).

Mercury Gravity Compared To Earth

  • Mercury is lighter than the Earth, therefore, it’s surface gravity is lower than that on Earth.
  • Mercury’s surface gravity is as less as 38% of the Earth’s Surface gravity.
  • For example:If someone weighs 100 pounds on the Earth, He/She would weigh only 38 pounds on the planet Mercury.

What Is The Temperature Of Mercury – Mercury Planet Temperature

  • The temperature of Mercury varies between -180℃ to 427℃.

What Is The Average Temperature On Mercury – Mercury Average Temperature

  • The average temperature on Mercury is 167℃.

What Is The Surface Temperature Of Mercury – Mercury Surface Temperature

  • The surface temperature of Mercury varies between -193.5℃ to 426.85℃.

What Is Mercury’s Temperature At Night – Mercury Temperature At Night

  • At night, the temperature at Mercury can be as cold as -180℃.

What Is The Temperature Range On Mercury – Mercury Temperature Range

  • Mercury’s surface temperatures are both; sometimes extremely hot, other times extremely cold.
  • The temperature ranges from anywhere between 800 degrees Fahrenheit (430 degrees Celsius) to -290 degrees Fahrenheit (-180 degrees Celsius).

How Hot Is The Planet Mercury

  • Mercury can be as hot as 427℃. 
  • However, the average temperature on Mercury is 167℃

Why Is Mercury Not The Hottest Planet

  • Although Mercury is the closest to the Sun out of all the planets of the Solar System, It is not the hottest planet.
  • This is because Mercury has no atmosphere to retain the heat coming from the Sun.
  • So, most of the heat that it gets from the Sun is lost in the Space.

How Is Venus Hotter Than Mercury

  • Venus is hotter than Mercury because:
    • Its atmosphere is very thick as compared to Mercury, and it is mostly composed of carbon dioxide.
    • Carbon dioxide is one of those gases which causes the greenhouse effect.
    • The greenhouse effect is so great in Venus that it raises the temperature more than that of Mercury.

Layers Of Mercury – Mercury Planet Layers

  • It is believed that Mercury is composed of:
    • A solid inner core.
    • A liquid middle Core
    • A solid Iron sulfide core layer.
    • A mantle layer thinner than the earth’s mantle.
    • An outer crust layer thicker than the earth’s crust.
Layers of Mercury

History Of Mercury Planet

  • It is known that Mercury was formed 4.5 billion years ago.
  • It happened when gravity pulled swirling gas and dust together to form the planet.
  • Its small size but enormous core is said to be the result of a collision with another Giant object that stripped much of its surface.
  • In 1631, Thomas Harriott and Galileo Galilei observed Mercury with the newly invented telescope.
  • In the same year, Pierre Gassendi used the telescope to watch from Earth as Mercury crossed the face of the Sun.
  • Till 1965, it was believed that the same side of Mercury always faced the Sun. However, astronomers found using radars, that the planet rotates three times, for every two orbits.
  • During 1974-1975, Mariner 10 photographed roughly half of the Mercury’s surface during three flybys.
  • In 1991, Scientists using Earth-based radar found signs of ice locked in permanently shadowed areas of craters in Mercury’s polar regions.
  • During 2008-2009, MESSENGER observed Mercury during three flybys.
  • In 2011, MESSENGER started its orbital mission at Mercury, yielding a treasure trove of images, compositional data, and scientific discoveries.
  • In 2015, MESSENGER deliberately crashed into Mercury after expending all its propellant, ending its mission.
  • In 2018, BepiColombo was launched with a target date for Mercury orbit insertion of 2025

What Is Mercury Made Of

  • Mercury is a planet with a rocky texture. 
  • It has a huge iron core.
  • This core takes up almost ¾ parts of the planet’s diameter.
  • Mercury’s iron core is about the size of a moon.
  • Iron makes up about 70% of the Mercury’s total weight, which makes Mercury the most iron-rich planet in the Solar System.

Mercury Planet Composition – Chemical Composition Of Mercury

  • Mercury’s composition is made up of 70% metals and 30% silicate materials.
  • Mercury has a solid silicate crust and mantle overlying a solid outer iron sulfide core layer, a deeper liquid core layer, and a solid inner core.
  • The following elements may be found on the planet:
    • Atomic oxygen, sodium, magnesium, atomic hydrogen, potassium, calcium, helium, trace amounts of iron, aluminium, argon, dinitrogen, dioxygen, carbon dioxide, water vapour, xenon, krypton, and neon.

Mercury Surface Features – Mercury Surface Description

  • Mercury’s surface looks a bit like Earth’s moon.
  • It is scarred by many impact craters, which resulted from collisions with meteoroids and comets.

What Does The Surface Of Mercury Look Like

  • Mercury’s surface resembles the Earth’s moon’s surface.
  • Most of Mercury’s surface appears greyish-brown to the human-eye.

What Is The Surface Of Mercury Made Of – Mercury Surface Composition

  • The surface of Mercury is made of loose rocks and dust.
  • Large Basins were created by asteroid impacts on the planet surface in the early times.
  • Mercury has large areas of smooth terrain, however, there are huge cliffs and mountains as well.
  • These uneven areas were formed as the planet’s interior cooled and contracted over the years.

What Is Mercury’s Core Made Of – Mercury Core Composition

  • Mercury’s core is unusually large and makes up about 70% of the planet.
  • It is composed of molten iron and nickel, and causes the magnetic field around the planet.

What Is The Atmosphere Of Mercury – Mercury Planet Atmosphere

  • Mercury has almost no atmosphere.
  • It is because it’s gravity is very low, that it can’t keep gases close to its surface.
  • Moreover, Mercury is so close to the Sun that the solar wind blows away any gases that accumulate near the surface.

Mercury Atmospheric Features

  • Instead of atmosphere, Mercury possesses a thin exosphere, which is made up of atoms blasted off the surface by solar winds and striking meteoroids.

What Is Mercury’s Atmosphere Made Of – Mercury Atmosphere Composition

  • Mercury’s exosphere is composed mostly of oxygen, hydrogen, sodium, helium, and potassium.

Mercury Atmospheric Pressure

  • Mercury’s atmospheric pressure level is 10-14 bar (1nPa)

What Is The Atmosphere Like On Mercury

  • In comparison to Earth’s atmosphere, Mercury is considered to be having almost no atmosphere.

What Is Mercury’s Distance From The Sun

  • The distance of Mercury from the Sun is 57.91 million km. 

Mercury Distance From Earth – Distance Between Earth And Mercury

  • The distance of Mercury from Earth is 77 million km.

What Does The Sun Look Like From Mercury

  • On Mercury, the Sun looks almost three times larger than it appears from Earth.
  • The distance between Sun and the Mercury is only 39% of the total distance between Earth and the Sun.

What Is The Climate Of Mercury – Mercury Climate

  • Mercury’s climate is quite variable.
  • During the day time, Mercury can reach temperatures of 800oF (430 oC).
  • As the planet has little to no atmosphere to retain the heat, nighttime temperatures can fall up to 230oF (-180oC).

What Is The Weather Like On Mercury – Mercury Weather

  • Temperatures on Mercury can be extremely HOT or extremely COLD as well.
  • Water Ice is thought to be found in around its North and South poles deep down in some craters, but only in the region of permanent shadows.

Can We Live On Mercury

  • Mercury is not likely to be the planet where we, Humans can exist.
  • This is because of the extreme fluctuations in the Climate of the planet.
  • Moreover, Mercury does not have any atmosphere around it, so it would be impossible for Humans to survive without fresh air and oxygen.

What Would It Be Like To Live On Mercury

  • It would be really difficult, rather impossible for life to exist on Mercury.
  • This is because the planet is extremely close to the Sun.
  • We can not  bear such high temperatures to survive.
  • Even though the regions near the poles are cooler, but they are extremely cold that life would be frozen in them.

What Is The Revolution Of Mercury – Mercury Revolution

  • Mercury is the planet closest to the Sun, so there is no other planet between the Sun and Mercury.
  • Mercury’s Orbit is kind of egg shaped.
  • The closest Mercury can get to the Sun while revolving is 29 million miles (47 million kilometers)
  • The farthest Mercury can get from the Sun while revolving is 43 million miles (70 million kilometers).
  • Mercury takes approximately 88 Earth days to complete its one revolution.

Mercury Period Of Revolution

  • Period of revolution on Mercury is 88 Earth days.
  • In other words, one year on Mercury equals 88 Earth days.

What Is The Rotation Of Mercury – Mercury Rotation

  • Mercury spins very slowly around its axis.
  • Mercury completes its one rotation every 59 days of Earth.
  • When Mercury is moving the fastest around its elliptical orbit and is closest to the Sun, each rotation is not accompanied by a sunrise and sunset like it is on most of the other planets.
  • The morning sun appears to rise briefly, set and rise again from the same parts of the planet’s surface.
  • For other areas of the surface, the same thing happens vice versa.
  • One Mercury solar day (one complete day-night cycle) equals 176 Earth days, just over two years on Mercury.

Mercury Rotation Period

  • One complete rotation equals 59 Earth days.

Mercury Rotation Speed

  • Mercury’s rotation speed is 10.892 km/h (3.026 m/s)

What Is The Orbital Period Of Mercury

  • Orbital Period of Mercury is 88 Earth days or 0.24 Earth years.

What Is The Length Of A Year On Mercury

  • A year on Mercury lasts for 88 Earth days.

How Many Mercury Missions Were There – Mercury Missions

  • As of 2015, only two missions were carried out for Mercury.
  • The first spacecraft to visit Mercury was Mariner 10, which imaged about 45% of the planet’s surface.
  • The second aircraft, MESSENGER had three flybys from Mercury, and then it orbited the planet for four years, before it crashed into its surface.
  • In 2018, a third mission known as the BepiColombo, which is a joint venture of Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) and the European Space Agency was launched.

Fun Facts About Mercury For Kids

  • Mercury is the closest planet to the Sun at a distance of 57 million km (35 million miles)
  • Out of all the terrestrial planets, Mercury is the smallest planet.
  • It is also the smallest planet in the Solar system.
  • Despite being so small, Mercury is the second-densest planet in the Solar System after Earth, which means it is very compact.
  • Though it is the closest planet to the Sun, Temperatures on Mercury are both extremely hot and extremely cold.

Interesting Facts About Mercury For Kids

  • The surface of Mercury is similar to the Moon.
  • It is the most heavily cratered planet, which shows that it has been geologically active for many years.
  • Mercury’s temperature changes are the most drastic in the Solar System.
  • Almost 85% of the radius of Mercury represents its enormous iron core.
  • Due to the core’s unusual size, Mercury began to shrink as the core cooled and contracted pulling the surface inward.

Short Questions:

How Hot Is Mercury Compared To Earth

  • The surface temperature range of mercury is very vast; On Mercury, the surface temperature varies from 800oF (430oC) to 290oF (-180oC).
  • While on Earth, The temperature range is -13oF (-25oC) to 113oF (45oC).
  • On Earth, at mid to high altitudes, the land surface temperatures can vary throughout the year. However, equatorial regions tend to remain constantly warm, and the polar regions (Greenland and Antarctica) remain constantly cold.

What Does The Sun Look Like From Mercury

  • On Mercury, the Sun looks almost three times larger than it appears from Earth.
  • The distance between Sun and the Mercury is only 39% of the total distance between Earth and the Sun.

Is There Oxygen On Mercury

  • Yes, oxygen exists on Mercury.
  • The surface density of Atomic oxygen on Mercury is ~ 4 x 104 cm3.
  • The surface density of Molecular oxygen on Mercury is < 2.5 x 107 cm3.

Why Is Venus Hotter Than Mercury

  • Venus is hotter than Mercury because of its immense atmosphere, which causes a greenhouse effect.
  • The greenhouse effect is mainly caused by the high concentration of carbon dioxide present in the atmosphere of Venus.

How Hot Is The Surface Of Mercury

  • Mercury’s Surface can be as hot as 800oF (430oC) during the day times.

Could We Live On Mercury

  • Life on Mercury is not possible because of the atmosphere and the extreme weather conditions of the planet.

Which Planet Is Hotter Mercury Or Venus

  • Venus is hotter than Mercury.

Why Does Mercury Have No Moons

  • Mercury doesn’t have a moon because it is very close to the Sun.
  • Therefore, the planet’s gravity cannot hold a moon of its own.
  • Any moon would most likely crash into Mercury or either will start revolving around the Sun due to its gravity and will eventually get pulled into it.

Why Does Mercury Have No Atmosphere

  • Mercury does not have any atmosphere because it is very close to the sun, and it’s low surface gravity can not hold an atmosphere.

What Does It Mean When A Planet Is In Retrograde

  • Retrograde is such a condition when a planet appears to change its motion.
  • The planet actually does not start moving backwards in its orbit, but the planet appears to do so, due to the relative positions of the planet, the Earth and the Sun.